The unconscious mental person is also connected with the right hemisphere. The difference between the hemispheres is not limited to the material they manipulate, it should only be a method of manipulation. The right hemisphere "captures" the material as a whole, while the left is capable of stepwise, step-by-step cognition (analytical activity). The left hemisphere strategy organizes the material so that a clear context is created that is understood equally by all, and the right hemisphere is a multifaceted context that cannot be comprehensively explained in a traditional communication system. In general, the brain functions as a whole, combining both ways of organizing the context as complementary components of thinking, but dominated by one of them.
In children, the figurative perception of the world requires much less activation of brain structures than the formal-logical. However, all our training is designed for the left hemisphere, which requires high brain activation for children. In the future, left-hemisphere dominance requires significant efforts to overcome its limitations, unambiguity, which hinders creativity. Creative people find it easier to work in unambiguous contexts.
D. Faber’s research has shown that in children from 3 to 7 years of age in a situation of both voluntary and involuntary attention, the right hemisphere is activated, and only from the age of ten – the left. The shift of asymmetry towards the relative predominance of the left hemisphere becomes especially pronounced by the end of adolescence. It is quite interesting that in right-handed children 8-9 years old, even when solving mathematical problems, the right hemisphere is more reactive and activated, and only between the ages of 10 and 14 the activity of the left hemisphere increases significantly. Arithmetic problems are solved by junior students not by identifying the key, but more and more specifically and individually. According to the observations of P. Tulviste and V. Arshavsky, Eastern peoples who did not study at school do not have such a pronounced left dominance. In Western culture (more rational), children train the left hemisphere much more socially at school.
It was found that left-handed children have less pronounced lateralization (division between the hemispheres) of functions and they remain ready for more harmonious development, their right hemisphere abilities are easier to awaken to life, ie they retain a great tendency to creativity.
What pedagogical conclusions follow from this? First, the younger the child, the more material should be presented in figurative form. No wonder J. Pestalozzi called the principle of clarity the "golden rule" of didactics. Secondly, learning opportunities should create opportunities for creativity, it is also necessary to differentiate learning.
Creating conditions for creativity in educational activities. Undoubtedly, the potential of different subjects for the manifestation of students’ creativity is different. It is more difficult to show creativity in a math lesson than in drawing lessons. However, it is necessary to understand how important the manifestation of creativity is for the full development of the child. It has been proven that creativity is one of the most important factors in maintaining human health throughout life. Solving creative problems in class, in preparing homework can be considered as a way to meet the basic abilities of students.
Inclusion in the process of cognition of the emotional sphere. The brightness, emotionality of the educational material, the excitement of the teacher with great force affect the student, his attitude to the subject. Information, colored by emotions, is incomparably better remembered, acquires personal meaning. However, the inclusion of the emotional and sensory sphere of the child in the learning process does not necessarily mean a lesson on "inflating passions". G. Serdyukovskaya’s research to determine the optimal ratio of emotionality, difficulty and saturation of the lesson, which provides a favorable response of younger students to the workload, showed that high emotionality is harmful in difficult and intense math lessons and useful for https://123helpme.me/narrative-essay-topics/ high difficulty and low saturation of Russian lessons.
Differentiation and individualization of the learning process depending on the personal characteristics and health of students. Under the traditional class-defined system of education, this problem is the most complex, but also the most relevant. Methods of differentiation and individualization are considered in detail in the course of pedagogy. Note those that are especially important for the health of the child. M. Akimova, V. Kozlova believe that in the differentiation of learning in the first place should take into account such features of the nervous system as weakness, inertia. These properties of the nervous system are easily traced in the behavior of children in class. They can significantly reduce the success of educational activities if they are ignored by the teacher and contribute to anxiety and the development of didactic neuroses. Consider briefly these features.
Features of teaching children with a weak nervous system:
do not put them in a situation of an unexpected question that requires a quick answer; give enough time for reflection and preparation; it is desirable that the answers be given not orally but in writing; during the preparation of answers to give time to check and correct what is written; if possible, ask them at the beginning of the lesson, and better, if not at the last lesson, but at the beginning of the school day; not to demand answers from new, just mastered material; it is better to postpone the survey to the next lesson; by the correct tactics of surveys and incentives (not only evaluation, but also statements such as "good", "you’re smart", "well done") to form the child’s confidence in their abilities and be sure to encourage diligence, even if the result is far from desired; carefully assess the failures of these students – because they themselves are quite painful to them; to distract from work in the minimum degree, to create to them a quiet situation; teach the ability to experience failure; for this purpose it is necessary to explain that sometimes to suffer failures is normal and inevitable, failure is not a reason for despair and self-contempt; try from an early age to involve the child in a wide range of activities to give him a sense of their potential, to find out where, in what activities they are best.
Features of teaching children with an inert nervous system:
not to require them to be immediately involved in the activity, as their activity in performing a new type of task increases gradually; remember that they cannot actively work with constantly changing tasks, and some students may refuse to perform such tasks at all; do not require a quick deputyno unsuccessful formulations in oral answers; they need time to think, because in their answers they more often follow the accepted standards, home-made products, avoiding improvisations; do not question them at the beginning of the lesson, as inert students are difficult to distract from the previous situation (for example, from the work they were engaged in on the shift); avoid situations where you need to get a quick oral answer to an unexpected question; it is necessary to give time for reflection and preparation; they should not be distracted at the time of performing the tasks; you should not demand answers from new, just passed material.
Creating success situations for students in the classroom. It is known that for the normal development of the child, along with success, situations of failure that stimulate search activity are also necessary. However, persistent learning failures affect children’s health and development. The easiest way to create a situation of success is to be sure of homework. Students should clearly know that if they complete the task in full and in the recommended way (translation, highlighting, answering questions), their answer will be successful. To do this, each lesson should discuss what and how to prepare at home. This significantly reduces the anxiety and neuroticism of children and contributes to better preparation of even weak students. The teacher only needs to follow the recommended form when interviewing.
Psycho-preserving assessment of the student’s response is also important. This means evaluating a specific answer without moving on to the child’s identity. In addition, we must first note the advantages of the answer and only then – the disadvantages. A mild form of assessment of failure is the phrase "It would be better if …".
The teacher must learn to perceive every success of his students as a general victory, every failure – as a personal defeat!
– Diagnosis of the initial of student fatigue, stress relief from static posture, stages of prevention of posture and vision disorders. Diagnosis of the initial state of fatigue of students is carried out by the teacher on visual grounds.
Conducting physical education breaks in primary school is a prerequisite for organizing a lesson. The optimization of this element of the school day is that teachers are encouraged to focus not only on the game form of exercises, but also on the unloading of those systems of the child’s organs that are most intense in the classroom. No less important is the "sounding" of students of certain exercises to maintain health.
Exercise break time should not be regulated by the 20-25th minute of the lesson, as recommended in many hygiene manuals. The best indicator is the behavior of the children themselves. The first signs of student fatigue are expressed externally, usually in some increase in involuntary motor activity and are a signal for warm-up.
For a variety of sports breaks, it is desirable to develop a weekly set of sports minutes. Exercise breaks can be held in any form: to swing "birch", "get out of the sky", to spread "blot" on a chair and the like. The interest of children in physical education increases significantly if they are invited to participate in the "invention" of physical education and their conduct.
The effectiveness of physical training minutes and morning set of exercises increases when the following conditions are met:
expressed positive emotional background; sounding in the form accessible to children of the purpose of carrying out procedures; variety of forms of exercises; the teacher chooses the role of a participant who is happy to perform exercises for their own health.
Psychological atmosphere of the lesson, communication style of the teacher. Repeatedly, when considering certain problems of pedagogical valeology, attention has already been paid to the need to maintain a positive psychological atmosphere of the lesson, the choice of a democratic style of pedagogical interaction.