28/01/2020

Quite common is the view that Russia VI-VII centuries.

Quite common is the view that Russia VI-VII centuries.

These material benefits could be paid for by adapting Christian ideology to the paganism of the Slavs.

The Russian Church has played a complex and multifaceted role in the history of Russia. Its undeniable benefit as an organization that helped the young Russian statehood in the era of rapid development of feudalism. Undoubtedly, its role in the development of n culture, in the attachment to the cultural riches of Byzantium, in the spread of the Enlightenment and the creation of significant literary and artistic values.

The heroic epoch of Vladimir (reigned 980-1015) was glorified by both church chroniclers and the people because in its main events the prince’s policy objectively coincided with the national interests.

The baptism of Russia introduced her not only into the family of Christian Slavic states, but also in general into the system of Christian countries of Europe with their cultural achievements. Russian culture and traditions were enriched by the achievements of the Middle East and, of course, the cultural treasures of Byzantium.

Russia benefited from the alliance with Byzantium, but at the same time Russia continued to have to constantly resist the political and ecclesiastical claims of the Byzantine Empire, which tried to subjugate Russia to its supremacy. However, Vladimir, the Baptist of Russia, considered his state full-fledged among other Christian nations of the world, «how will you enter the Christian countries.»

Sources

BA Rybakov. Kievan Rus and Russian principalities. History of Ukraine. Edited by V. Smoliya.M. Hrushevsky. Illustrated history of Ukraine.

March 26, 2013

The first princes of the Kiev state. Abstract

Formation of the state with the center in Kiev. Princes Deer and Askold. Board of Oleg in Kiev (882-912). Prince Igor (912-945). Kievan Rus during the reign of Olga and Yaroslav. Svyatoslav (957-972)

Formation of the state with the center in Kiev

The development of production among the proto-Ukrainians led to an increase in labor productivity, improvement of agricultural implements. There is no need for joint cultivation of land. The land and everything grown on it became the property of individual families. Families living in a common area were united into a neighboring territorial community.

Property stratification intensified among community members. Tribal nobility, elders, military leaders concentrated in their hands wealth. Proto-Ukrainians at that time had a kind of social system, which was called military democracy. Gradually, the tribal elite became landowners, and free community members joined the category of dependent population.

With the breakdown of the tribal system, instead of tribal unions, new territorial associations were gradually formed – principalities headed by princes. Their centers were «gardens»: in the plains, for example – Kiev, the northerners – Chernihiv. To retain power, protect their lands and conquer new territories, the princes formed military units – wives.

The process of unification of the principalities into a single state accelerated the complication of the foreign policy situation due to the Great Migration. Nomads rolled through the Black Sea and Azov steppes in waves, the Avars and Khazars caused great disaster, and the Normans threatened the Slavs from the north.

The largest was the state union, which included glades, woodsmen and northerners. The chronicler calls it the n land. Its historical core was the Middle Dnieper. Contemporaries – Arab and Byzantine authors called the first state union of the Eastern Slavs Russia, and the people who inhabited it – the Russians. Since the center of this state was Kyiv, in historical literature it was called Kievan Rus.

The origin of the name «Rus» is one of the most controversial issues in historical science. Quite common is the view that Russia VI-VII centuries. identified with the union of several alliances of tribes – glades, northerners, streets. It occupied the territory between the Desna and Russia and the Tyasmin, the Gorin and the Sejm and the Sula. There are several rivers with the same name – Ros, Rosava, Rosavitsa – which may be the basis of the name «Rus».

Another version speaks in favor of the Iranian origin of the name. Probably, «Rus» comes from the Sarmatian language (rhos – light). This name could have one of the Sarmatian tribes, which was later assimilated by the Antes, from whom the name was already adopted by the proto-Ukrainians.

Some researchers believe that the name «Rus» has a northern origin. They derive it from the Finnish name of the Swedish territory ruotsi, and Russia itself was located in the territory occupied by the Novgorod Slovenes.

Princes deer and askold

In 862 the chronicler mentions the Kyivan princes Deer and Askold. Apparently, they were the last of the Slavic dynasty of princes, which began with Kyi. They ruled, probably at different times, their reign was marked by a number of outstanding events. Deer already owned a large area. Merchants from other countries came to its capital.

The naval campaign of Russian troops led by Askold to Constantinople became famous. The ships of the Rus went at such a speed that messengers from the settlements they captured did not have time to warn Constantinople of the danger. At dawn on June 18, 860, a Russian fleet of 200 boats stormed Golden Horn Bay. The coast guard did not have time to pull a giant chain over the surface of the water, which always securely blocked the entrance to the bay.

Soldiers disembarked from the boats and immediately began the siege of the walls of the Byzantine capital. There was panic in the city. The emperor and his army were marching against the Arabs at the time. The Byzantine author described this event as follows: «The people came out of the north … and the tribes rose from the ends of the earth, holding bows and spears, they are cruel and ruthless, their voice roars like the sea.»

The Russians wanted to capture the city at once, and when they failed, they began a siege and looted the suburbs. But convinced that they could not capture the city, they lifted the siege and returned home with a lot of booty. The siege of Constantinople became a kind of reference point for n history in the Greek chronicles. Byzantium recognized the East Slavic state.

According to some scholars, during the reign of Askold began the spread of Christianity in Russia. But only the prince’s warriors and some of his immediate entourage were baptized. The prince was one of the first Christians in Russia. But the new religion met with fierce resistance from the masses and much of the ruling elite. The result of such resistance was the forcible removal of Askold from the Kyiv table.

Board of Oleg in Kiev (882-912)

While the n land was getting stronger, in the north the East Slavic tribes were at war with each other. This confrontation ended with the invitation of the Novgorodians to rule in Russia the Viking Rurik, who tried to conquer the tribes by force. After Rurik’s death in 879, the reign in Novgorod passed to his voivode Oleg, who was the guardian of Rurik’s son Igor. Thus the Rurik dynasty was established. Oleg ruled on behalf of little Igor, but in fact was a full-fledged prince. Obviously, the confrontation with the Slavic tribes became extremely acute, so Oleg and his princely son had to leave Novgorod.

In 882 he and his wife went down by boat on the Dnieper and captured Kiev, killing the local prince Askold. Oleg declared Kyiv his capital. During his reign, almost all Eastern Slavs were united, which was a decisive step towards the creation of the state of Kievan Rus. The power of Kyiv extended not only to the Polyany, Derevlyany, and Severyans, but also to the Ilmen (Novgorod) Slovenes, Krivichi, Radimychi, White Croats, Ulychi, and to the non-Slavic tribes of Chud and Meryu.

In the late IX – early X centuries. Russia has made significant progress in the international arena. One of Oleg’s important measures was an attempt to protect the state from Viking attacks. He agreed with them that he would pay 300 hryvnias a year in tribute if the Vikings gave up their raids on Russia.

According to the chronicle, in 907 Oleg, at the head of a large army gathered from the lands of the Croats and Dulibs, who joined him as allies, marched on land and water to Byzantium and as a sign of victory over it nailed his shield at the gates of Constantinople. Byzantium was forced to pay a huge tribute to the prince of Kiev https://123helpme.me/write-my-lab-report/ and sign an agreement with him. Under this agreement, Russian merchants were given the opportunity to come freely to Constantinople and trade duty-free.

Russian ambassadors and merchants who were in Constantinople were provided with food for six months, received free bread, wine, meat, vegetables, and used the bath. Water in arid Constantinople was of great value, and bathing in the bath was considered a great luxury and even a means of treatment. On the way home, the Byzantine government had to provide them with anchors, ropes, sails, that is, all the necessary ship equipment.

The legal norms of Russian-Byzantine relations were even more clearly stipulated in the treaty of 911. According to it, the parties bore equal responsibility for the crimes of their subordinates – murder, fights, theft; undertook to provide assistance to merchant ships that suffered disasters, to return prisoners and fugitives.

Another important area of ​​international interests in late IX – early X centuries. were the countries of the Arab Caliphate. The Arab writer Al-Masudi tells of a campaign in 912-913, when 500 Russian ships (100 people each) crossed the Volga and reached the southern coast of the Caspian Sea.

In chronicles, works of art we have a legend about the death of Oleg from the bite of a snake that visited him to divination.

Prince Igor (912-945)

After Oleg’s death, Igor became the prince of Kyiv. He continued the policy of his predecessor, aimed at strengthening the central government and the unification of the tribes. The people of Derevnya came out of obedience to Kyiv, on which Igor went to war and imposed a greater tribute than before. For three years the prince fought with the streets, but did not conquer them.

During the reign of Igor, the Pechenegs first appeared near the southern borders of Russia. In 915 they made peace with Kiev and retreated to the Danube, but in 920 the agreement was violated. Byzantium feared the strengthening of Russia and directed the Pechenegs against the Rus.

In 941, Igor, taking advantage of the fact that Byzantium was at war with the Arabs, went with the army on ships to Constantinople. Near the city of Rus met a well-armed Byzantine fleet, which burned ships with Greek fire. Many Russian soldiers died.